The origins of the game can be traced back to the earliest civilizations of the world, but the modern game of field hockey was developed in the British Isles. The modern game was started in England in the mid 1800’s and the first formal field hockey club the ‘Blackheath Football and Hockey Club’ was formed in 1861.
Hockey is a popular game possibly depicted on walls in Egypt. Drawings of what looks to be hockey have been found in an Egyptian tomb that was 4000 years old. Hockey is a popular game in India and Pakistan. It was played for hundreds of years before other countries like England modernized it. Hockey is similar to an ancient game played in Scotland called shinty. Hockey is often played at schools in the UK but its origins are unclear. Later came ice hockey.
Hockey is the oldest known ball and stick game apart from the Irish sport of hurling. Games resembling hockey have been played as early as 2000BC. The Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all left evidence they played a game using a ball and sticks.
In medieval Europe, pictures of men playing a game with hooked sticks feature in stained-glass windows at both Canterbury and Gloucester cathedrals.
It became so popular by the Middle Ages that, like football, it was banned in England for a time because it interfered with the practice of archery, which was the basis for national defence. The name hockey probably derives from the French “hocquet”, or shepherd’s crook, and refers to the crooked stick.
Hockey began as a sport in the late 19th century. The first hockey club is considered to be the Blackheath Football and Hockey Club in south-east London, which dates back to at least 1861, and possibly the 1840s.
Hockey had truly developed as a British sport before being carried to the four corners of the British Empire by the nation’s soldiers and other workers. Accordingly, most of the dominant nations in the sport are, or were, members of the British Empire. This includes India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand and England.
The Olympic programme first embraced hockey in 1908 and since its return in 1920, it has been on the events list ever since. Hockey was originally played on grass fields but in the 1970s artificial turf was adopted, making the game much faster. In 1980, women’s hockey became an Olympic sport.
Hockey entered the Asian Games at the 3rd Asian Games Tokyo 1958, Japan.
History of Pakistan Hockey
Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) is the national governing body of sport of Hockey in the Country. PHF is affiliated with the International Hockey Federation (FIH).
In 1948, after having been affiliated with the FIH, the PHF started its activities. Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan and Mr. Baseer Ali Sheikh were the first President and Honorary Secretary of the PHF. In the meantime Pakistan Hockey Team participated in various international events and it gained tremendous recognition.
From 1978 onwards, national and international activities of National Senior, National Junior and Women Hockey Teams were increased manifolds. PHF introduced the World Cup and the Champion Trophy Tournaments, which are now rated next to the Olympics.
Presently, Brig (r) M. Khalid S. Khokhar is the President, whereas, Mr. Shahbaz Ahmad Sr. (H.I) is the Secretary General of PHF.
The Pakistan Hockey Federation came into being in 1948, following the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Prior to this players from what is now Pakistan had competed internationally alongside players from what is now India. In the beginning, the Federation’s membership included the Provincial Hockey/Sports Associations of West Punjab, East Bengal, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Bahawalpur & Services Sports Board. Pakistan played their first international in London when they defeated Belgium 2-1 in 14th Olympic Games hockey tournament on 2 August 1948.
The first President of PHF was Ghazanfar Ali Khan with Baseer Ali Sheikh as Honorary Secretary. The Pakistan national side soon established a strong reputation in international competition, helping to maintain interest in the game in Pakistan which assisted the growth of the Federation. However, no full-time central office or secretariat, as such, was established until the 1960s.
The office of the Pakistan Hockey Federation, located in National Hockey Stadium, Lahore, Lahore, was developed into a Secretariat in 1971. It was during the second term as president of Air Marshal Nur Khan from 1978 that Pakistani hockey entered something of a golden age. National Senior, National Junior and Women Hockey Teams were all competing internationally, increasing the work load of PHF Office and secretary Brigadier M. H. Atif tremendously.
On the personal initiative of Air Marshal M. Nur Khan, the FIH introduced the World Cup Tournament and the Champions Trophy Tournament, which are now rated amongst the major international tournaments, alongside the Olympics. At this time, Pakistan held all the major titles in men’s international hockey.
However, the 1976 Olympics in Montreal had seen the introduction of artificial turf to international hockey competition. Pakistan was unable to build as many of the new pitches as the European nations or Australia and New Zealand and so the strength of the national side declined. It was after a lapse of 12 years that the Pakistan Hockey Team again started climbing and won the Champions Trophy and the World Cup with Air Vice Marshal Farooq Umar as president and Colonel Mudassar as secretary of the Federation.
Pakistan won the World Cup four times in 1971, 1978, 1982 and 1994 respectively.
Pakistan also won two times Silver medalist in 1975 and 1990.
In 1956, Pakistan won one Silver medal
In 1960, Pakistan achieved one Gold medal
In 1964, Pakistan won one Silver medal
In 1968, Pakistan achieved one Gold medal
In 1972, Pakistan achieved one Silver medal
In 1976, Pakistan won one Bronze medal
In 1984, Pakistan achieved one Gold medal
In 1992, Pakistan won one Bronze medal.
Pakistan won three times Champions Trophy in 1978, 1980 and 1994 respectively.
Pakistan stands six times Silver medalist in 1983, 1984, 1988, 1991, 1996 and 1998.
Pakistan Hockey team also stands six times Bronze medalists in 1986, 1992, 1995, 2002, 2003 and 2004.
Pakistan won eight times Asian Games in 1958, 1962, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1990 & 2010.
Pakistan stands two times Silver medalists in 1966 and 1986.
Pakistan stands three times bronze medalists in 1994, 1998 and 2006.
In 2002, Pakistan won one Bronze medal.
In 2006, Pakistan obtained one Silver medal.